TOFU (Top of the funnel) refers to the marketing activities carried out in the earliest stages to create awareness about a brand or product. It is part of the theoretical customer journey also called a “purchase journey.” TOFU helps marketers spread awareness, educate prospects, and create a buzz about a product, service or brand.

Third-party data

Third-party data is data that is collected by an entity or a provider who has no direct connection or relationship with the users. Data from different sources, such as government, non-profit, or academic ones (e.g., weather data, public demographic data), can be combined or exchanged on data marketplaces or platforms. It is used in marketing to run targeted ad campaigns, discover new audiences, or get insights about current users. However, it may not be as accurate or useful as first-party, and it may have issues with compliance and privacy regulations.

Technical SEO

Technical SEO is the practice of improving a website’s technical aspects to increase its pages’ ranking in search engines. The pillars of technical search engine optimization are making a website faster, easier to crawl, and more understandable for search engines. Technical SEO is part of on-page SEO, which focuses on improving elements on your website to get higher rankings. It is the opposite of off-page SEO, which is about generating exposure for a website through other channels.


Targeting is the practice of directing marketing efforts and resources towards specific market segments that are defined by demographic, contextual, and behavioural traits that have the highest potential for return on investment.