Digital Marketing Definitions

Your AdMarula guide to digital & search marketing definitions and acronyms

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Average Order Value (AOV)

The average amount customers spend for all orders on a website or in-store. AOV helps to inform businesses about their marketing and pricing strategies.

Above The Fold

All of the visible content on a web page prior to scrolling.


A website analytics metric that lets you see the percentage of people who began a defined conversion process but did not complete it

A/B Testing

Also referred to as split testing, the process in which email and content marketers compare two versions of a single variable to determine which one performs better. This process is undertaken in order to optimize content and marketing efforts.

Behavioral Analytics

An analytic tactic that provides insight into the actions of your audience and customers.


An incoming hyperlink from one web page to another website. When a website receives a link from an external website, some reputation is passed to it.

B2C Content

B2C customers respond better to content that demonstrates emotional satisfaction, targets benefits, and proves value for the price on highly targeted, relevant channels.

B2B Content

Content specifically targeted for B2B audiences. For example, white papers, industry-relevant articles, blog posts, podcasts, and infographics for clients, potential clients, colleagues, partners, and suppliers.

Cost Per Mille (CPM)

Cost per thousand. Under a CPM pricing arrangement, advertisers pay for every 1,000 impressions of their ads.

Cost Per Lead (CPL)

A measurement of the cost of generating a new lead where the advertiser pays for an explicit sign-up from a consumer interested in the advertiser’s offer.

Cost Per Download (CPD)

An advertising model where the advertiser pays when a user downloads their app from the Apple AppStore or Google PlayStore.

Cost Per Click (CPC)

Under a CPC pricing model, advertisers pay only when a user clicks on their ads.

Cost Per Acquisition (CPA)

A measurement of the aggregate cost of acquiring one customer on a campaign or channel level.


Cookies are small text files which are stored on your computer by your web browser. There are two types of Cookies known as ‘Session Cookies’ and ‘Persistent Cookies’.

Conversion Rate

The percentage of visitors who buy, convert or take a desired action. This metric is a measure of the effectiveness of the conversion process from engagement, to the final purchase/action completion.

Client Lifecycle

A user journey transitions to the client lifecycle when a prospect becomes a client. It comprises of four elements: onboarding, active, inactive, and lost.

Click-through rate (CTR)

The percentage of people who saw your ad and then clicked on it. The formula for CTR is clicks divided by impressions.


The measurement of total mouse clicks on a hyperlink or ad. If a customer sees your ad and clicks on it to learn more or to do business with you, it’s recorded in your account as a click.


ChatGPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is an artificial intelligence chatbot developed by OpenAI and released in November 2022. It is built on top of OpenAI’s GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 foundational large language models and has been fine-tuned using both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques.


An individual digital channel. For example, Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp are channels available under the Meta Business Platform on which businesses can connect with fans via a business page.

Dynamic Content

Content that’s unique to the user(s) visiting a site. Many websites can tailor the user’s experience (based on cookies tracking their returning visits) and uses their history or declared interests to tailor their experience.

Double Opt-In

An email process where a user subscribes to emails and receives a confirmation email message containing a verification link for their account.

Direct Traffic

Visitors who reach the advertiser’s site either by typing the URL in their browser or via a saved bookmark.


Information that describes data. They can be information such as country, channel, location, age, gender, and device used.


Hard facts about your audience that enable you to gain a deeper understanding of them and their lifestyles/needs.


A collection of widgets that give you an overview of the most important metrics and reports.

Evergreen Content

Content that remains relevant and of interest to users for years after its initial creation and publication.

Engagement Rate

A metric used to measure the performance of a piece of content based on the percentage of users that interact with that content.


Interactions between a brand or organization and its customers. The four types of customer engagement are emotional, contextual, convenient, and social engagement

Emotional Selling Proposition (ESP)

The emotional triggers used in marketing messaging to help influence a user to complete a purchase/action

Effective Cost Per Mille (eCPM)

A metric used for comparing the effectiveness of campaigns with different pricing models. It’s calculated by dividing the total earnings from by the total number of impressions, multiplied by a thousand.

Effective Cost Per Click (eCPC)

A metric used to show what the CPC would have been if the advertiser had purchased clicks instead of impressions or conversions.

Effective Cost Per Action (eCPA)

The cost that an advertiser actually paid for each action i.e. the total cost divided by the number of actions.

Earnings per click (EPC)

The most important metric for publishers. It’s the metric that measures the average earnings over a 7-day period that an affiliate can expect to earn for every 100 clicks that they are able to generate. EPC concretely indicates earning potential.

Friction Points

Elements that slow down user engagement or make it difficult for a website visitor to complete an action such as buying, completing a lead form, or browsing your content.


A display advertising metric which counts the average number of times a user views an ad.


In social media, a follower represents a user who chooses to see all of another user’s posts in their content feed. Getting users to follow their accounts is a primary objective for online businesses with a social media presence.

First-Party Data

Data about a user audience that advertisers collect directly from their website analytics, as opposed to data collected by a third-party analytics/tracking system.

Feature Creep

Feature creep, more commonly known as scope creep, refers to adding an excessive amount of features to a product that makes it ultimately too complicated or difficult to use for the end user. These extra features go beyond the initial functionality and can result in ‘software bloat’ and over-complication.

Facebook Pixel

A special tracking code that should be inserted on the merchant website to record user interactions and events back to Facebook Ads Manager prior to the start of a campaign.

Facebook Business Manager

A Facebook tool that helps you to organize and manage your company’s presence on Facebook.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The GDPR is an important component of EU privacy law and human rights law. It requires strict user data and permission policies enforced in relation to the collection and use of Personally Identifiable Information.


A technology that allows an advertiser to select a geographic point using latitude and longitude information and thereby create a virtual fence around a given radius of that point. For example, an advertiser could select a geographic point representing the location of a bank branch in order to deliver a specific ad to anyone who comes within a 200-meter radius. Ads delivered through geofencing typically yield higher conversions and better ROI for advertisers.


A method of showing different ad content to visitors based on their geolocation. This includes country, region/state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, IP address, ISP, or other criteria.


Goals also referred to as events, are a metric used to track the number of valuable actions taken on the site, including sales, leads, or downloads.

Google Ads

Google Ads is an online advertising platform developed by Google, where advertisers bid to display brief advertisements, service offerings, product listings, or videos to web users. It can place ads both in the results of search engines like Google Search and on non-search websites, mobile apps, and videos.

Google AdSense

Google AdSense is a program run by Google through which website publishers in the Google Network of content sites serve text, images, video, or interactive media advertisements that are targeted to the site content and audience. These advertisements are administered, sorted, and maintained by Google.

Google Analytics (GA4)

Now in its 4th iteration, Google Analytics GA4 is a web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. GA4 replaces its highly-embraced predecessor, Universal Analytics (UA), since its Beta release in 2019.

Google Search Console (GSC)

Google Search Console is a web service by Google which allows webmasters to check the SEO indexing status, search queries, and SEO crawling errors, and optimize the visibility of their websites based on these reports. Until 20 May 2015, the service was called Google Webmaster Tools.

Google Tag Manager (GTM)

Google Tag Manager functions using a single JavaScript code snippet added to your site as a container for all the tags you want to manage. Managed tags are then triggered on-site from within this container based on rules per event (e.g., by clicking a link or loading a page) configured within the GTM interface.


A way to identify a person or brand on social media platforms. Handles are usually preceded by the @ symbol.

Hard Bounce

A permanent failure to deliver an email to a recipient account, where any retries will not be successful.


A clickable keyword that sums up the content of a tweet or social media status update. A hashtag is a dominant feature of both Twitter and Instagram.

Heat Map

A graphical representation of web page engagement data using colours to indicate the level of activity. Low activity areas usually use darker blue through green colours to indicate low activity sections. Higher activity areas progress from yellow to orange to red colours to indicate increasing activity levels across different sections.


In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a digital reference to data that the user can follow or be guided to by clicking or tapping. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. The text that is linked is known as anchor text.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is an extension to the original Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTPS uses encryption for secure communication over a computer network and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security or, formerly, Secure Sockets Layer.

Impression Share (IS)

The percentage of impressions that an ad receives versus the total number of impressions that the ad was eligible to show. Impression share = impressions / total eligible impressions.


Sometimes known as a view-through, an impression is the number of times an ad was shown on a website, search engine, or social platform. An ad impression occurs any time a user opens an app or website and an advertisement is displayed. This is not to be confused with an engagement.

Inbound Link

Inbound links, also known as backlinks, occur when a link from an external web page links back to your website. They are the source of trust and page rank for organic search. Google views inbound links as an indicator that a site has high-quality content. These links are therefore one of the most important elements in search engine optimization (SEO).


A set of structured data examined by a search engine looking for information relevant to a searcher’s query. A search index is tailored to the particular way that the search engine algorithm retrieves information

Internal Link

A hyperlink from one page to another page, on the same website.

IP Tracking

When connected to the internet, each unique device uses a unique address called an IP address. With IP tracking, every time a user accesses a website, the website tracks that IP address. This means the user’s location can be distinguished and used for marketing campaigns based on specific user locations.


JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and CSS. As of 2022, 98% of websites use JavaScript on the client side for webpage behaviour, often incorporating third-party libraries. As SearchEngine Journal explains, JavaScript is: “A programming language that makes it possible to dynamically insert content, links, metadata, or other elements, on websites.”

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